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你见过杜普蕾的大提琴吗?

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在本科老师的影响下,我去看了那部杜普蕾传记式的电影《她比烟花寂寞》。这部电影在爱乐人士中的反响很大,其中不少认识杜普蕾的人说这根本不是真实的杜普蕾,在英国还有另一部讲述杜普蕾生平的片子会更为真实一些。


我没看过那另一部片子,我只记得比烟花寂寞的那个她,才华横溢却又肆意骄纵。她是家庭的中心,是舞台的中心,但却从不是自己的中心。她短暂的一生比烟花绚烂,却比烟花寂寞。片名叫《Hilary and Jackie》,杜普蕾姐姐和杜普蕾的名字,但直译的名字远不如《她比烟花寂寞》来得完满。


翻译这篇文章耗费了我很多天的时间,最终在我重庆之旅的途中完成了。期间我查阅了很多资料。有关于杜普蕾生平的、有关于杜普蕾身边亲友的还有关于杜普蕾使用过的大提琴的传奇故事的。文中多次提到的“大卫朵夫”提琴现在在华裔大提琴家马友友手中,在此之前这把300多岁的提琴还陪伴了多位出色的大提琴演奏家、谱写了众多传奇的故事。很感谢这篇文章让我感受了这么多美丽的故事,在这里我要再一次向杜普蕾以及我深深喜爱的大提琴家马友友致敬!





To mark what would have been the cellist’s 70th birthday this week, Charles Beare talks about the different instruments and bows that she played over her short but extraordinary career.The friendship between Jacqueline du Pré and Charles Beare dated from 1963, when both were beginning to make their mark in the music world   Beare as a leading expert on antique violins and du Pré as one of the finest English cellists of her generation.


为了纪念这位大提琴手本周70岁的生日,查尔斯·贝尔瑞谈到了杜普蕾那短暂却又耀眼的职业生涯中所用过的大提琴和琴弓杰奎琳·杜普蕾和查尔斯·贝尔瑞的友谊始于1963年,那时他们都才刚在音乐界崭露头角,那时贝尔瑞是一位杰出的古代小提琴专家,而杜普蕾是当时英国最棒的大提琴家之一。




“I got to know her socially as we lived quite near each other, and we became friends,” he recalls. “I was overwhelmed by her on all fronts. She was a terrific girl – very energetic but very sensible.”


“那时我们住得很近,我偶然在外遇见了她,随后我们成为了朋友”,贝尔瑞回忆到,“不管从她的哪方面来说,我都为她倾倒,她是一个很棒的女孩,精力充沛但是也很敏感”。


杜普蕾




At the time, du Pré was playing an early Strad. “It was dated 1673, but it might have been a bit later. It was quite a big cello and had a very big, full sound, but to her it didn’t have the warmth of a golden period Strad.”


那时,杜普蕾所用的是一把早期的斯特拉迪瓦里(译注:斯特拉迪瓦里是17世纪意大利著名提琴制作大师,后来他的名字也用来指他制作的琴)。“琴上标注了此琴为1673年制作,但可能实际会比这个时间再稍晚一些。那可真是一把很大的大提琴,它的声音洪亮饱满,但是对于杜普蕾而言这把琴还是没有黄金时期的斯特拉迪瓦里(译注:1700年起为斯特拉迪瓦里提琴的黄金时期)的那种温暖感”。



The initiative to find a replacement came from du Pré’s benefactor, her godmother Isména Holland, late in 1964. “Her career was not yet at its peak and her benefactor wanted her to have the very best because she knew that there was going to be a tremendous cellist there. So Jackie came and asked me to look for something.”


1964年底,杜普蕾的赞助者,同时也是她的教母霍兰(Isména Holland)提出了换一把琴的倡议。“那时她的职业生涯还没有到达顶峰,她的赞助者想要她拥有最好的(琴),因为她知道杜普蕾将会是最优秀的大提琴家。所以杰姬(Jackie,杜普蕾的昵称)就来找我了”。



杜普蕾



Beare knew that the 1712 ‘Davidoff’ Stradivari was with the Wurlitzer firm, where he had trained with Rembert Wurlitzer and Simone Sacconi in the early 1960s, so he phoned Mrs Wurlitzer, who brought the cello to London personally. Beare was one of those assembled when du Pré first tried the ‘Davidoff’, as was her teacher William Pleeth.


贝尔瑞知道1712年的“大卫朵夫”(著名的斯特拉迪瓦里大提琴之一)曾落户沃利策公司(译者注:时为美国一乐器经销商和乐器制造商),20世纪60年代早期,贝尔瑞跟伦博特·沃利策、西蒙‧萨康尼也就是在这个公司里一同受到了提琴制造技术的训练,因此贝尔瑞便给将这把琴亲自带到了伦敦的沃利策太太打了电话。贝尔瑞是目睹杜普蕾第一次奏响大卫朵夫的人之一,另一位是她的老师威廉·普利斯。




Beare recalls that after du Pré had played for around 20 minutes, Pleeth described it as “absolutely the perfect cello. He said, ‘Whether or not it will suit you, you’ll have to find out, but it’s a wonderful instrument.”’ According to Beare, du Pré herself was “overwhelmed by what it could do. It was wonderful – and still is!”


贝尔瑞回忆道,当杜普蕾拉了大概20分钟后,普利斯描述说“这是一把绝对完美的大提琴”,他说“不管它适不适合你,今后你要搞清楚这一点,但是它是一把很棒的琴”。贝尔瑞还说到杜普蕾自己也被这把琴迷倒了,它曾是一把很棒的琴,而且它现在也依然很棒!



杜普蕾



So the ‘Davidoff’ was bought for du Pré, who a few months afterwards used it for her classic Elgar Cello Concerto recording of 1965 with Sir John Barbirolli and the London Symphony Orchestra.


后来大卫朵夫便被买下送给了杜普蕾(译注:霍兰女士买下了这把琴送给了杜普蕾),而且在几个月后,杜普蕾便带着它一同与约翰·巴布洛里爵士和伦敦交响乐团一起录制了1965年版的埃德加大提琴协奏曲。


The ‘Davidoff’ accompanied du Pré all over the world as her fame grew. “She loved it dearly,” says Beare, but there were two problems. “Being a Strad, it wouldn’t willingly take the pressure that she instinctively wanted to apply to an instrument. She really could turn it on with her bow and if you press too hard with an instrument like that you can sometimes come out of the other side of the optimum sound. She was a very strong person and she needed a very strong cello. In retrospect I think a Montagnana would have been the perfect instrument for her, but there weren’t any around at that time.”


大卫朵夫跟随着杜普蕾环游世界,也见证了杜普蕾事业的成长。“她爱死它了”贝尔瑞说,但是有两个问题,“作为一把斯特拉迪瓦里,它并不想承受太大的力度,然而杜普蕾却本能地想这样拉奏乐器。她的确可以用她的琴弓拉得大声一点,但如果你这样用力过猛地拉琴,有时候你会拉出来另一个极端的声音。她是一个非常大力的人,她需要一把承压很强的琴。现在想来我认为蒙塔尼亚纳更适合她,但是那会儿这种琴一把都找不到”。



杜普蕾




The Davidoff also struggled with rapid changes of climate. “We used to have to overhaul it when she came back from her trips and the bridge would be too high or too low and the seams would be open and so on. We didn’t really understand about the atmospheric effects on instruments then and she was traveling all over the place. But give it a couple of weeks in England and it was 100% amazing again.”


大卫朵夫也忍受着极端变化的天气状况。“我们通常要在她旅行回来后对它进行大修,回来后的大卫朵夫琴桥可能太高或者太低,琴的接合处可能裂开等等。那时我们并不是很了解环境对乐器的影响,但是杜普蕾却满世界到处跑,不过只要让给它几周在英格兰休息的时间它又能100%恢复了”。




Then one morning in the summer of 1967 du Pré rang up fresh from an overseas trip to ask if she could borrow another cello to take to Milan that afternoon. “She said, ‘I’ve only just got back with the ‘Davidoff’ and it’s not functioning properly.’ So we lent her a Francesco Goffriller and she came back and said ‘I love it! It’s not the ‘Davidoff’ sound with all its colors but it takes the pressure and it’s survived a tough trip.” She continued to borrow it and a few years later asked to buy it.


1967年夏天的一个早晨,杜普蕾刚从海外演出回来,就打电话问能否再借一把大提琴下午带到米兰。她说“我和大卫朵夫刚回来,现在它的状况不是很好”。因此我们借给了它一把弗朗西斯科•哥夫瑞勒,当她回来后她说“我爱死这把琴了!它虽然没有大卫朵夫的音色但是它能承受住很大的力度,而且它能承受住一场磨人的旅行”。后来她又继续借这把弗朗西斯科•哥夫瑞勒,几年后她提出要买下这把琴。



杜普蕾



By that time du Pré was married to and performing frequently with the pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim and this appears to have influenced her final choice of instrument. “Daniel had a problem listening to the ‘Davidoff’ when he was playing with her because the sound in all its glory went out across the hall and, as he was sitting behind her, he couldn’t hear it properly. The Goffriller had a spread of sound, although it didn’t have the same quality as the Strad, and he could hear that better.”


那个时候杜普蕾嫁给了钢琴家、指挥家丹尼尔·巴伦博伊姆,并和他一起四处演出,这似乎影响了她对乐器的最终选择。“当丹尼尔坐在杜普蕾后面与杜普蕾一起演奏的时候,大卫朵夫响亮的声音会充盈整个音乐厅,所以他不能听清大卫朵夫的声音,但是哥夫瑞勒的声音有很好的延展性,虽然它的音色不及斯特拉迪瓦里,但是丹尼尔能更好地听见它”。



This was the situation when the couple met the Italian maker Sergio Peresson, who offered to make du Pré a cello. Dated 1970, this cello became her chief concert instrument until her career was cut short by multiple sclerosis in 1973.


当这对夫妇遇到意大利大提琴制造家塞尔吉奥·佩雷松(Sergio Peresson)时,情况就是这样,塞尔吉奥答应为杜普蕾制作一把琴,于是从1970年起,这把琴就成为了杜普蕾音乐会上主要用的琴,直到1973年多发性硬化症中断了她的职业生涯。



杜普蕾




“I heard it on occasion and it didn’t have any colors at all, but it was very loud close to and certainly Daniel could hear it,” says Beare. “I remember her playing the Tchaikovsky Trio in the Royal Festival Hall and I was not as happy as before, and nor were other people who were listening for colors. But by that time she was starting to get quite ill and because Daniel was thrilled to bits with the Peresson no one said anything. That cello did the last live Elgar recording with Daniel and it worked very well for that.”


“我听过这把提琴,它没有一点色彩可言,但它的声音非常大,丹尼尔肯定能听见”,贝尔瑞说,“我记得她在皇家音乐厅演奏柴可夫斯基的三重奏,但我听得没有以前那么开心了,其它想听她演奏丰富色彩的听众也一样。那时她已经病得很严重了,但由于丹尼尔很喜欢佩雷松的那把琴,也就没人再多说什么。那把琴与丹尼尔一起参与了最后一次埃德加的现场录制,效果很好”。



Du Pré did not demand a lot of adjustments for her instruments. “It was often up to me to say I thought something wasn’t quite right, rather than her complaining about the sound. She was completely unfazed by anything really – she was Jackie and that’s the way she played. I remember vividly her way of trying out a cello was to play a note fairly low down on the D string. She played that note for two or three minutes, and you wouldn’t believe the variety of sound and volume and beauty she could get out of it.”


杜普蕾对调整她的乐器没有太多的要求,“她对琴声没有太多抱怨,相反常常是我说我觉得这把琴不太对劲。她真的对所有事情都没有太多要求——她是杰姬,她就是这样拉琴的。我很清楚地记得她有一次试了一把琴,仅仅是在D弦上拉了一个非常低的音,她拉了那个音有两三分钟吧,你都不敢相信她能拉出多少种音色、音量和美感的变化”。



杜普蕾



Beare also looked after du Pré’s bows. “She used to come back from her trips with about a tenth of the bow hairs still left,” he remembers. She preferred strong, heavy bows and used a John Dodd weighing around 90 grams. This lasted until one time when her mother brought it to the Beare shop for a rehair and the car door blew shut on it, breaking it beyond repair. Beare then lent her a Louis Panormo bow, which turned out to be an ideal replacement.


贝尔瑞也负责杜普蕾琴弓的修护。“她常常带着她大约还剩十分之一弓毛的琴弓回来”,贝尔瑞说。她更喜欢结实、更重一点的琴弓。她曾经用过约翰·多德的一把大概90克重的琴弓,直到她妈妈把这把弓带到贝尔瑞店里来重新上毛,然而车门把它折断到不能修复前为止,她一直用那把弓。随后贝尔瑞借给了她一把路易斯·帕诺莫的琴弓,事实证明这把弓是一个很好的替代品。



“Jackie just loved that Panormo. Panormos tend to be heavier than the French bows, and that’s what she liked because she was so strong. She used one of those rubber tubes on it and that particular bow with the rubber was 104 grams, which is overdoing it really! But it was just right for her.


“杰姬很喜欢那把帕诺莫。帕诺莫比法国弓要更重一些,然而她就是喜欢这一点,因为她就是这样一个大力的人。她用过这种加了橡胶管的弓,这种弓有104克重,对于弓来说这真的是太重了,但对于杜普蕾来说却正合适。”



杜普蕾



If you see her playing in the Barenboim studio recording of the Elgar Concerto in 1967, which Christopher Nupen filmed, you wouldn’t believe the bow could be that heavy because her right hand was so sensitive as well as so strong.”


如果你看过克里斯多夫·努彭摄制的她在巴伦博伊姆工作室演奏的1967年版埃尔加协奏曲唱片,你就能通过她敏感又强壮的右手看出那把弓到底有多重了”。



Beare used to visit du Pré after each of her overseas trips. “Any time Jackie used to come back from somewhere I used to have an omelette or something in her flat and then cart off the ‘Davidoff’. She was a wonderful person to be with – she was always such fun.”


贝尔瑞通常会在每一次杜普蕾结束旅演后来看她。“每次杰姬回来,我都会带上一份煎蛋或者其它什么东西去看她,然后把大卫朵夫带走。她是个有趣的人,跟她待在一起的感觉很棒”。



杜普蕾



He also recalls a time when his phone rang at 3am and a voice announced, “‘It’s Jackie!’ We chatted for a few minutes and then I said ‘Where are you?’ and she said ‘Los Angeles’ so I said ‘You know it’s the middle of the night here?’ and she said ‘Oh golly! I thought it was lunch time!’ I can’t remember what the problem was that time but there were all kinds of moments when something happened and she felt like ringing someone back at home.”


他也还记得有一次凌晨3点钟他的电话响了,“那是杰姬打过来的!我们聊了几分钟,然后我问她,你在哪儿,她说洛杉矶,然后我问她,你可知道现在我这是半夜?,她惊呼到天啦噜,我还以为是午饭时间哪。我记不清当时她是为什么事情找我了,但是只要她遇到事儿了都会往家那边的什么人那儿打个电话”。



When asked about du Pré’s legacy, Beare says simply, “She was the most amazing person and the most amazing cellist. I think she was truly an inspiration to everyone.”


当被问到有关杜普蕾遗产的问题时,贝尔瑞简洁地回答:“她是最棒的人,也是最棒的大提琴家。我觉得她是每一个人的灵感和鼓励”。






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