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不可错过的十大巴赫研究丨巴赫康塔塔欣赏指南(上)

巴赫康塔塔欣赏指南(上)


The cantatas of J.S. Bach form an exceptional body of work that, for various reasons, seem not to be as well known by the listening public as the venerated status of their composer suggests they should be. One reason may be that their original function and context, either as sacred or secular celebration, does not fit well with modern concert practice and so exposure to all but a handful of them is rare.


巴赫的康塔塔作为一种特殊的音乐体裁,由于种种因素,并没有像它们的作曲家所倡导的那样为人熟知。其中的一个原因便是这种体裁最初承载的功能和存在的环境的变化,不管是在宗教的或是世俗的庆典中,康塔塔都与现代音乐环境格格不入,因此它们中只有很少的一部分为人所知。


巴赫


A second reason is surely their sheer extent. Nearly two hundred sacred cantatas and over a score of secular cantatas leave the neophyte in a state of confusion as to where to start. Fortunately, the availability of recordings of almost all of them help circumvent the first problem. In many cases there is now a choice of renditions available (in both ancient and modern performance practice!), many of extremely high quality.


第二个可以肯定的原因便是康塔塔惊人的数量,近两百首宗教康塔塔以及无以数计的世俗康塔塔让初学者无从下手。但好在几乎所有的作品我们都能找到录音,因此这第一个问题也就不是问题了,甚至,在很多情况下我们还能听到康塔塔的现场演出(不管是古代的或是现代风格的音乐会),而且它们中的大多数还有很高的质量。


巴赫



I hope that this present endeavour will help circumvent the second problem. During 19952000 I posted a series of reviews on the newsgroup rec.music.classical that recorded my reactions, as a musical listener, to the Bach cantatas. As you can see, thanks to the kindness of Dave Lampson, I've been able to collect together those postings and some additional material to make these pages at the Classical Net.


我希望这篇导聆能帮助大家解决第二个问题。在1995-2000期间,我在rec.music.classical的新闻上发表了一系列我作为听众对巴赫康塔塔的音乐评论,正如您所见,多亏了戴夫·兰普森的帮助,我才得以将这些文章以及其他一些材料收集到一起,在古典音乐网(Classical Net)上做成一个合集。


巴洛克双簧管-巴赫康塔塔咏叹调 BWV 156



I hope that these writings will persuade some of you to visit or perhaps to revisit some of these superb works and I will be overjoyed if, through my advocacy, just some of you gain entry to this wonderful world.


我希望这些文章能够促使您去聆听或是再聆听巴赫这些卓越的作品,如果您能因为我的倡导进入到巴赫康塔塔美妙的世界中,那我必将会欣喜若狂。



I would like to say a few words of introduction and apology for the approach that I have taken here to the sacred cantatas: They are sacred works, mostly written with a specific function in a Lutheran church service and I believe that they should be listened to with that context in mind, whether you are a believer or not.


   我想对宗教康塔塔作简短的介绍,但我也要为我引入宗教康塔塔的方式道歉。宗教康塔塔是宗教性的作品,其中大多数是为路德教会的仪式所写的带有特定用途的作品,因此我相信,无论您是教徒与否,在聆听康塔塔时我们应该在脑海里将它们还原到仪式场景中。


巴赫



Lutheran theology is not so alien to our modern minds as to remove all hope of understanding the affekt that Bach was trying to create with his music. I have included, where appropriate, the bible readings for the day on which the each cantata was performed and I do encourage the listener to read them as well as the text of the cantata.


路德教会的神学体系与我们现代的思想观念并非水火不容,以至于抹杀一切我们能够明白巴赫音乐世界的希望。在适当的情况下,我已经阅读了每部康塔塔所演唱的《圣经》内容,我也鼓励听众朋友们阅读这些篇目以及康塔塔的歌词文本。



Now, despite a certain amount of musical training, I am not a musician or a musicologist, and I am certain to slip into the bad linguistic habit of using absolute comparatives and superlatives when what I am actually describing is my emotional reaction to a work. I also acknowledge that when describing whether music conveys emotion (or affekt), I am taking for granted an enormous amount of cultural context, itself partially defined by the techniques used by Bach himself, so my judgements here may be circular.


尽管我受过一定程度的音乐训练,但我不是一个音乐家或音乐学家,当我描述自己对作品的情感反应时,我也一定会陷入使用很绝对化的比较级和最高级词句的不良语言习惯中。我也意识到在叙述音乐是否传达情感(或有这个倾向)时,我理所应当地将其置入了大量的文化语境中,并且也认为这也部分地由巴赫自己的技术所决定,所以我在这个问题上的判断可能存在循环论证的缺陷。


巴赫


However, I wish to avoid too many circumlocutions, so I will assume that most of us here share sufficient cultural context for you to know what I'm talking about and I apologise to those of you whose sensibilities I offend!


但是,我希望我能避免赘述太多不相干的事,因此,在这里我假设我们中的大多数人都已掌握足够的文化语境来理解我所说的事情,若我冒犯了那些较为敏感的朋友,我也在此向你们道歉!



After much hesitation I have decided to include a Rating Index for the cantatas if only to try and summarise my liking for each work. I don't consider myself qualified to pass an absolute judgement of quality on any of these works but I hope it will help guide you on to "what to listen to next". I have used a scale of 1, 2 and 3 together with the qualifications of a star (*) for extra special affection and a plus (+) for those cantatas where one movement seems to stand out above the others.

经过再三犹豫后我决定依据我对每一部康塔塔的喜爱制作一张排序清单,这并不是说我有足够的资格来为每一部康塔塔的质量做一份绝对的评判,但我希望这份清单能够帮助你们决定“接下来听哪部作品”。我用序号1、2、3来排序,星号(*)表示我尤为喜爱的作品,加号(+)标明了这些康塔塔中的某个乐章比其他乐章更为突出。



Thus, cantatas rated as 1* seem to me to be close to Bach's highest level of inspiration and comparable with those that are commonly considered his greatest works. Cantatas rated 3 are those that have left me cold. Having completed the cycle of sacred cantatas, I'm happily suprised to note the very small number of works that I've placed in the latter category.


这样一来,标有1*的康塔塔对我来说就是代表了巴赫最高水平的康塔塔作品,它能与那些通常被认为是他最伟大的作品相媲美。被归类在序号3下的康塔塔曾是让我失望的那一类,但当我完成了对整个宗教康塔塔的归类后,我惊喜地发现这类康塔塔的数量已经很少了。


巴赫



Having heard, before I started, that I should expect to find that the cantatas have much fine music swimming in a sea of mediocrity, I now find myself in a position to deny that emphatically! In my opinion there is much to be gained from listening to and studying almost any of the cantatas.


在我开始归纳之前就已经听说很多康塔塔使好的音乐流于平庸。而现在我却能极力地否决这一观点,在我看来,通过聆听和学习,几乎每一部康塔塔都是一座尚待开发的宝藏。



Should you disagree with my assessment or review of a cantata, or have a correction to make in matters of fact or conjecture, please let me know. Judgements like these can be contingent things and I would be extremely happy if someone's pointing me at what to look at removed the scales from my eyes! These reviews will be revised in the light of your comments.


若您对我对康塔塔的评定和评论有异议,或者对我的叙述有确定或不确定的纠正意见,请务必让我知道。像这样的一些评论有时可能是令人困扰的,但若您能使我茅塞顿开,我一定会开心至极,我的这些评论也会依据你们的见解而作修改。



录音介绍


There are to my knowledge two (more or less) complete cycles of the sacred cantatas. One by Harnoncourt and Leonhardt on Teldec (now available at budget price on 60 CDs) and another by Rilling on Hänssler (at super bargain price). The former employs "original" performance practice, the latter a "modern" practice. I have both sets and like each of them for their complementary attributes.


就我已知完整的宗教康塔塔录音有两套(或多或少),一部是由泰尔迪克(Teldec)公司发行的哈农库特和莱昂哈特合作版本(现在这60张CD正以优惠价格发售),另一部是由恩斯勒公司发行的利林版本(现正以超低价发售)。前者的风格更偏向“原始”演奏风格,而后者更偏向“现代”风格。这两套唱片我都有,并且因这两部曲唱片互为补足而同时喜爱它们。



Koopman has started a complete cycle (on Erato) which I will collect in due course and use at some stage in the revision of this site. Mention should be made of the cycle that has just started on the BIS label under Suzuki. Although in its very earliest stages, what has appeared is very good indeed. DG have also announced that John Eliot Gardiner will traverse the entire sacred cantata series in the year 2000. 


库普曼也开始录制全套的康塔塔(埃拉托公司),届时我也会收藏这套唱片,并将这篇文章再做修补。值得一提的是,这部唱片是由铃木公司旗下的BIS品牌制作,虽然这部唱片还在制作初期,但现阶段呈现出来的成果的确令人满意。DG(译注:全称为Deutsche Grammophon- Gesellschaft ,即德国留声机公司)公司在2000年也宣布约翰·艾略特·加德纳会全程参与宗教康塔塔系列的录制。



The cycle of seventy five cantatas recorded by Richter, which I like very much, is now available on 26 budget price DG CDs. It also looks like Erato are gradually releasing the cantatas recorded by Werner (again, a "modern" style of performance). There are also many recordings of individual cantatas and if I were to pick out just one more artist to highlight I would choose Herreweghe. All the recordings I have of his I like very much indeed.


这75首康塔塔由里克特录制,我很喜欢这个版本,现在在26张由DG出品的很便宜的唱片里可以听到。似乎埃拉托公司在通过维尔纳(同样也是现代风格的演奏)逐渐发行康塔塔的录音。还有很多单独的康塔塔录音,如果要我推荐其中一位艺术家,那赫尔维格会是我的选择,他的所有录音我都很喜欢。



When we turn to the secular cantatas, the situation does not seem to be so felicitous, no complete cycles being currently available. Hopefully, this will be put right on release of the appropriate parts of Koopman's traversal or the re-release of Schreier's set. Hänssler have announced a complete Bach series for the year 2000, part of which will be a complete traversal of the secular cantatas by Helmut Rilling.


再回头来看看世俗康塔塔,它的境况就没有这么乐观了,目前来说世俗康塔塔没有完整的整套录音,希望能在库普曼即将发行的或施雷尔重新发行的系列中看到它们的身影。恩斯勒公司宣布在2000年会发布巴赫的全系列录音,其中的一部分便有赫尔穆特·利林的整套世俗康塔塔录音。



I should remark that none of the "complete" sets are really complete. For example, the Harnoncourt/Leonhardt set leaves out some of the fragmentary cantatas that have been reconstructed and leaves out the Latin cantata BWV 191. The Rilling set is better but still, perhaps inevitably, leaves out some fragments. We'll have to wait and see whether the cycles in progress do offer complete coverage!


我需要强调一下,没有一部“完整的”系列是真正完整的,例如,哈农库特和莱昂哈特版的录音就省略了一些重建后依然不完整的康塔塔以及拉丁康塔塔BWV191。利林版本的康塔塔会好一些,但也无可避免地省略了一些康塔塔片段。我们只能期待未来会不会有覆盖全面的完整康塔塔录音面世。


巴赫



书籍及参考文献


During the compilation of these reviews I have used many different sources of information. The following is a selection of the most easily available.


在汇编这些资料时,我从很多不同的地方找寻资料,下面就是一些很容易找到的资讯合集:


01 《牛津作曲家指南:巴赫》


牛津作曲家指南:巴赫


·Malcolm Boyd (ed.), Oxford Composer Companions: Bach, Oxford UP, 1999. This recently published encyclopaedic dictionary has become the premier reference work in English for the cantatas by dint of it's comprehensive coverage of each individual work. It should be in the library of every Bach lover.


《牛津作曲家指南:巴赫》马尔科姆·博伊德主编,牛津大学出版社1999年版。这本近新出版的百科全书式词典因综合全面地覆盖了巴赫每首作品而成为康塔塔英文书籍的首选,对于每一位巴赫迷而言,这本书都应珍藏。



02 《迪·坎塔顿·冯·约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫》


迪·坎塔顿·冯·约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫


·Alfred Dürr, Die Kantaten von Johann Sebastian Bach, dtv/Bärenreiter, 1995 (original 1971). German language standard reference. Easily available, cheap and has all the sacred and secular cantata texts. Highly recommended, if you can read German


《迪·坎塔顿·冯·约翰·塞巴斯蒂安·巴赫》阿尔弗雷德·迪尔著, dtv/Bärenreiter出版公司1995年版(原版发行于1971年)。这是一本德文著作,便宜易得且囊括了所有宗教及世俗的康塔塔歌词。如果你能看懂德文的话,那么我强烈推荐这本书。



03 《巴赫的教堂康塔塔》

巴赫的教堂康塔塔


·Alec Robertson, The Church Cantatas of J.S. Bach, Praeger, 1972. Provides a commentary on most of the sacred cantatas together with a lectionary. This is long out of print but is widely available in libraries and does turn up second hand.


《巴赫的教堂康塔塔》亚力克·罗伯森著,普雷格出版社1972年版。这本书对大多数宗教康塔塔以及圣经选文进行了述评,目前这本书已绝版,但在图书馆与二手书市场上都能轻易找见。



04 《巴赫的康塔塔》


巴赫的康塔塔


·J. A. Westrup, Bach Cantatas, BBC, 1966. A small but valuable guide to the best in the cantatas. Very cheap.


巴赫的康塔塔》J·A威斯特鲁普著,BBC出版社1966年版,这是一本介绍巴赫最好的康塔塔的指南书,很便宜,但很有价值。



05 《巴赫的康塔塔》


巴赫的康塔塔


·W. G. Whittaker, The Cantatas of J.S. Bach, 2 Vols, Oxford UP, 1959. Long out of print but for many years one of the standard references in the English language. Whittaker was the first person to conduct all of the cantatas in public and his love and understanding shine through on every page. Whittaker died in 1945, leaving the book in draft form, but luckily for us it was prepared for publication by Harold Thomson and finally appeared in 1959.


《巴赫的康塔塔》W·G惠特克著,共两册,牛津大学出版社1959年版。这本书很早之前就已经绝版,但多年来它都是最标准的英语参考书目。惠特克是最早公开介绍所有巴赫康塔塔的人,他对巴赫康塔塔的热爱与熟稔贯穿于书中的每一页。惠特克于1945年辞世时只留下了这本书的草稿,但幸运的是哈罗德·汤姆森一直在为这本书的出版不懈努力着,并最终于1959年出版了这本书。



However, this means that it was written well before the chronological discoveries of the 1950's that so altered our perception of the cantatas, so you should be wary about any of the historical contents, but if you're able to find a copy of the 1978 paperback reprint, you'll find an appendix containing the new chronology. This is definitely a book worth reading if you find modern musicological writing rather lacking in aesthetic content.


然而这也就意味着这本书的写作时间远早于20世纪50年代之前,但50年代之后对康塔塔研究的新发现却极大地改变了我们对康塔塔的认知,所以书中出现的所有有关历史内容的地方你都应该谨慎对待。如果你能找到1978年平装版的书,你会找到一份新附上去的历史年表。如果你觉得现代音乐学的书籍缺乏审美内容的话,那这本书绝对值得你一读。



06 《巴赫的一些康塔塔和经文歌中那些转瞬即逝的音符》


巴赫的一些康塔塔和经文歌中那些转瞬即逝的音符


·W. G Whitaker, Fugitive Notes on Certain Cantatas and the Motets of J.S. Bach, Oxford UP, 1924. Even longer out of print but worth looking up for historical interest. Whittaker discusses cantatas 2, 4, 10, 12, 38, 56, 61, 68, 70, 104, 115, 116 and 140 as well as the motets. A lot of the discussion is taken up with berating the translators of English editions of the canatatas, but the material on performance practice is fascinating historical reading.


《巴赫的一些康塔塔和经文歌中那些转瞬即逝的音符》W·G·惠特克,牛津大学出版社,1924年版。这本书虽然很早前也已绝版,但仍值得在其中找寻历史的线索。惠特克在书中讨论了第2、4、10、12、38、56、61、68、70、104、115、116和140首康塔塔以及经文歌。书中很多部分都是在批评康塔塔的英文版译者,但这本书中有关演奏实践的叙述是很值得一读的历史读物。



07 《巴赫康塔塔分析》


巴赫康塔塔分析


Eric Chafe, Analyzing Bach Cantatas, Oxford UP, 1999 (or 2000?). Sounds like it'll be a fascinating book, but OUP keep putting the release date back. Last time I looked it was due for release early in 2000.


《巴赫康塔塔分析》艾瑞克·蔡菲,牛津大学出版社,1999年版(或2000版?),这本书看起来是一本很棒的书,但是牛津大学出版社一直不停地推迟它的发行日期,我最后一次看到它是在2000年初的时候。



08 《新格罗夫、麦克米兰》


新格罗夫、麦克米兰


·Stanley Sadie (ed.), New Grove, Macmillan, 1980. Articles on J.S. Bach and his family are invaluable sources of reference. Extensive work list especially useful in summerising the current state of knowledge on questions of authenticity. The New Grove Bach Family (Christoph Wolff et al.) is extracted from this and is more up to date (especially the German language version).


《新格罗夫、麦克米兰》史丹利·萨蒂主编,1980年版。J·S·巴赫和他家族的相关文章非常宝贵,但大量的作品列表尤其是有效总结目前相关信息状态的列表,其真实性有待考证。《新格罗夫巴赫家族》(克里斯托弗·沃尔夫等编)就是从这本书中提取信息的,而且这本书更新(尤其是德语版)。



09 《巴赫康塔塔的世界》


巴赫康塔塔的世界


·Christoph Wolff (ed.), The World of the Bach Cantatas, Norton, 1995-. Koopman's complete cycle is being accompanied by the publication of three volumes about the cantatas: As of June 1999 the first volume has been released in English and the second is available in German and Dutch. Somewhat dry but contains valuable background information.


《巴赫康塔塔的世界》克里斯托弗·沃尔夫主编,诺顿出版社,1995年版。库普曼的整套书籍发行时,这三册有关康塔塔的书也同期发行了出来:1999年6月第一册发行于英国,第二册发行于德国和荷兰。这本书虽然有些枯燥,但其中很多背景知识还是很有用的。



10 《巴赫》


巴赫


·Albert Schweitzer, J. S. Bach, 2 Vols, Dover, 1966 (original 1911). A classic book about Bach's life and works. Extensive discussion of the cantatas and, taken with caution, compulsory reading for the Bach enthusiast.


《巴赫》艾伯特·施威策著,多弗尔出版社1966年版(1911年版为原版)。这是一本描述巴生平及其作品的经典著作,其中有很多关于康塔塔的审慎论述,是巴赫爱好者的必读书目。




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