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希拉里·哈恩的新专辑是如何诞生的?

希拉里·哈恩的新专辑是如何诞生的?

Hilary Hahn Records 6 Partitas for Solo Violin

By Laurie Niles



When Hilary Hahn first encountered the solo violin writing of Spanish composer Antón García Abril, she thought that a composer who writes so intuitively for solo violin should create a set of works like J.S. Bach's Six Sonatas and Partitas, or Eugène Ysaÿe's Six Sonatas.


从第一次接触到西班牙作曲家安东·加西亚·阿布里尔的小提琴作品起,希拉里·哈恩(著名小提琴演奏家,译者注)就产生了一个念头,邀请他创作一套小提琴无伴奏作品,就像巴赫、伊萨依的六首无伴奏奏鸣曲和组曲那样。


著名小提琴演奏家 希拉里·哈恩


Her vision now has led to Antón García Abril’s 6 Partitas, which Hilary released last week. She cocommissioned the partitas with the National Endowment for the Arts and Washington Performing Arts, with additional funding from Dr. Gary Mather and Ms. Christina Co Mather, premiering the works in live performances three years ago. An edition of the sheet music is in the works.


结果,阿布里尔的六首无伴奏组曲如约而至,得益于国家艺术基金的资助以及华盛顿艺术基金的资助,希拉里本人也于上周完成了唱片的录制。此前,因为盖里博士以及盖里女士的资助,才使得这一套作品得以出版,并于三年前公开首演。




西班牙作曲家安东·加西亚·阿布里尔


西班牙作曲家安东·加西亚·阿布里尔



Hilary first learned of García Abril through both his music and a mutual friend. "So I kind of knew him on two levels: as a composer and as the best friend of this person who I know who lives in Spain," she said. García Abril, now 86, is an award-winning composer who has written opera, orchestral works, cantatas, film music and song cycles. He also taught for nearly 30 years as Professor of Composition at the Real Conservatorio Superior de Música de Madrid.


希拉里与阿布里尔除了在音乐上结缘,双方还有一位共同的好朋友。“对于我来说,阿布里尔既是一位作曲家,同时又是我一位西班牙好友的最好的朋友,”希拉里说。阿布里尔,今年86岁,擅长创作歌剧、交响乐、康塔塔、电影配乐、声乐套曲等,并多次获奖。同时,他也在皇家马德里高等音乐学院从事作曲教学近三十年。



The idea for the partitas started when García Abril wrote Hilary three pieces, which he called "Three Sighs," for her 2013 Grammy-winning project, In 27 Pieces: the Hilary Hahn Encores. Hilary had commissioned García Abril to write just one piece for violin and piano, with the option of submitting a version for solo violin.


邀请阿布里尔创作无伴奏组曲的想法,源自于他为希拉里创作的三首无伴奏小品“三声叹息”。2013年,当时希拉里创立了在全世界征集27首专属安可曲的计划(这张专辑在2015年获得格莱美奖,译者注),阿布里尔也在受邀请的作曲家之列。



著名小提琴演奏家 希拉里·哈恩


But as he told her, "I just wanted to write you three." She chose the Third Sigh for the project, but it was the "Second Sigh," written for solo violin, that made her think outside the scope of the encores project.


希拉里最开始只想要一首小提琴钢琴二重奏,或小提琴独奏曲,但阿布里尔对她说:“我要么不写,要写就写三首。”结果,“第三声叹息”被选入了专辑,而以无伴奏形式创作的“第二声叹息”则成了“六首无伴奏组曲”的“导火索。



First Sigh (阿布里尔:第一声叹息)

Hilary Hahn;Cory Smythe - In 27 Pieces: The Hilary Hahn Encores



"When I first played it, I realized the genius in his voiceleading and solo style," Hilary said, speaking to me over the phone last week. "I also realized that there was nothing like it in the solo repertoire. Not a lot of composers have done polyphony well for solo violin."The composers who have, such as Bach and Ysaÿe, have explored the genre through a set of six works.


“我刚一拿到乐谱,就被作曲家对于旋律的把控和特有的风格所吸引,”希拉里在上周与我的通话中说,“这是之前所有独奏作品中不曾出现过的,不是每个作曲家都能将小提琴这种主调乐器与复调旋律如此完美的结合在一起。能够完成这项高难度任务的作曲家中,巴赫伊萨伊等,都完成了包含六首作品的套曲。



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"Because of the tradition of the solo sets, I felt like I needed to ask him to write a set of six sonatas or partitas," she said. "I didn't have any format in mind, I just wanted him to think about it." Of course, this was no easy request to fulfill. Without accompaniment, the violin must harmonize itself, which challenges the limits of a fourstringed, bowed instrument. And Bach's solo violin works are worshiped as a kind of "Bible" to the violinist; Ysaye's are also well-loved and wellrevered.


“既然有这样的一个传统在,我觉得还是可以请他也来试一试完成六首无伴奏奏鸣曲或者组曲。”希拉里说,“我也没有说一定要固定某种形式,只是想请作曲家做一个尝试。”显然,这可不是轻易能完成的任务,作为一件只有四根琴弦,一把弓的乐器,不仅没有其他乐器提供伴奏,还要完成自己给自己伴奏的任务,真的很难。巴赫的六首无伴奏就被奉为小提琴作品的“圣经”,伊萨伊的无伴奏奏鸣曲也拥有至高的地位。



Hilary persisted in asking García Abril to do it, and he persisted in brushing off the idea,at least that's how it appeared."He would say, 'Oh I don't know. What would I write? What would I say?'" Hilary said. She became convinced that he was not going to do it.Then one day in 2014 he surprised her with the entire score of all six Partitas.


商定好之后希拉里一直在紧盯着这件事,而阿布里尔则一直闪烁其词——至少看起来是这样。“阿布里尔总是说,‘哦,我不清楚,该怎么写呢?’我又能说什么呢?”随着时间推移,希拉里开始觉得这件事越来越没有希望了。直到2014年的某一天,他站在她面前,拿出整套无伴奏的乐谱。




"Secretly he had been working on it every single day, for months," she said. "He had been listening to recordings to get to know my playing better; studying the scores of Bach, Ysaÿe, and every other solo violin piece he could find; and really trying to figure out his own language," she said. In fact, his wife Aurea, told Hilary that every day for months, he would announce, "I am going to my studio to be with Hilary," and spend all day studying and writing, emerging only for meals and a daily siesta.


“原来,老先生每天都在偷偷的创作,连续好几个月了,”她说,“他把我之前的唱片找来听,研究我的演奏特点;把巴赫、伊萨伊,以及其他所有小提琴独奏曲找来,仔细研究,并尝试创作出具有他个人特色的旋律。”而阿布里尔的夫人,奥利女士,曾经私下告诉希拉里说,这几个月来的每一天,老先生都嚷嚷着说:“我要去我的工作室找我的希拉里去了。”从早到晚都待在工作室里,除了吃饭和午睡,完全不休息。



Indeed, the way García Abril put together the Six Partitas makes his inspiration clear: he wrote six singlemovement pieces and named them "Heart; Immensity; Love; Art; Reflexive; You"   "H-I-L-A-R-Y."


加西亚·阿布里尔的六首作品有着不一般的含义,他把每一个独立的乐章分别命名为“心灵、无限、爱、艺术、反射、你”,相对应的首字母"H-I-L-A-R-Y"正是希拉里的名字。



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"In each of the Partitas, I don’t use dances [as Bach did]," García Abril said, "but I do use the rhythms from our Spanish folklore. I’m one who still thinks music is global, it always has to reflect the background of each composer...The concept of the writing is that there is a cultural essence, which has a lot of weight in Bach and my own Partitas."


“我并没有像巴赫一样,在乐曲中采用传统的舞曲形式,”加西亚·阿布里尔说,“但我采用了大量西班牙民歌的韵律。我始终认为,音乐是世界的,但民族的才更能体现这种世界观。每一种不同的文化都有自己独有的精彩之处,把这种美用音乐表达出来,是巴赫曾经做过的,也是我现下正在努力的。”



After García Abril presented her the score, she worked on the music and then met with him a few weeks later. With their mutual friend as Spanish/English translator, "we went through it detail by detail," Hilary told me. Their friend was exhausted by the end of the day, "after going back and forth between two artists with opinions, trying to explain bilingually to each of us, where we were coming from," Hilary said. Over those sessions, "we really got to know each other's values and priorities and how we thought about the music. You don't get that opportunity with a lot of composers."


拿到乐谱后,希拉里首先自己练习了一段时间,并在几周后与作曲家会面。因为他们俩有一位共同的好朋友,同时可以说西班牙语和英语,因此被邀请成为了两人的翻译。“我们两人几乎是一个音一个音的逐个切磋讨论,而我们的翻译朋友则需要同时用两种不同的语言交换两位艺术家对于音乐的不同见解,一整天下来,可把他累坏了。”希拉里说道。这之后,“我们对于彼此的观点与喜好,以及对于音乐的见解都更加清晰了。能与作曲家进行这样的交流的机会可不多。”



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"Every note somehow feels dedicated to me," Hilary wrote in her blog. "The phrasings that I’ve never encountered before, that he imagined me playing, feel like they were meant for me to interpret. When I play them, I feel like they are significant. They’re beautiful, expressive, mercurial, colorful, abstract, detailed, dancing, impetuous and full of motion and emotion."


“每个音都似乎是为我而写,”希拉里在自己的博客中写道。“每一个乐句,都是作曲家想象着我演奏状态创作出来的,每一句都是我从未感受过的,但冥冥之中必须由我来诠释的。我开始演奏它们的时候,每一个音符都如此美妙、富有表情,多姿多彩,既抽象又具体,充满热情,让人忍不住随着翩翩起舞。”



The recording came only after many live performances, "and I didn't tell Antón that I recorded them," Hilary said. "He didn't tell me he wrote them, so I didn't tell him I recorded them until the recording was at the printer."She made sure it was a good surprise.


在多次现场演出之后,才有了出版唱片的计划。“我事先并没有告诉阿布里尔关于录制唱片的时期,”希拉里说,“他背着我偷偷写谱子,我背着他偷偷灌唱片,咱们算是扯平了。”到时候一定会让他大吃一惊。



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"I was over at his son's house (in the States) visiting the family, and I told the son (also Antón) that I had brought some background music for the party that his father would enjoy," Hilary said. "I gave him the thumb drive and said, 'Don't look at the tracks, just press play!'" Knowing that the music was about to play, Hilary continued talking casually with the composer, until at one point he stopped talking and raised his index finger.


“那天我去他儿子家里做客,他们全家人都在。我对他的儿子说,我带了点背景音乐来,一会聚会的时候放,老先生一定会很喜欢,”希拉里说,“我把U盘给他,并嘱咐他‘别看曲名,直接播放!’”快到播放音乐的时候,希拉里还故意跑去和作曲家拉扯家常,分散他的注意力。两人聊的正欢,忽然阿布里尔停了下来,指着唱片机问:



"Is this...what is this? Is this a performance? Is this the Partitas?" he asked. At that point she told him, "Yes, I recorded it!" and filled him in on the details. "He was really happy, and it was fun to be able to return the favor."


“这是······是什么?现场演出的录音吗?难道是我的无伴奏组曲?”他大声问。希拉里这才回答说:“对!我把他们制作成唱片啦!”希拉里将整个录制过程事无巨细的说给作曲家听,他开心极了,很喜欢这种以“牙”还“牙”的恶作剧行为。



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While these works involve greatly detailed writing for violin, García Abril himself is not a violinist; he is a pianist. "That's something that boggled my mind a little bit," Hilary said. Not only did he understand how create polyphony within four strings, but he also has a quality that goes beyond writing for violin technique. "Having the expansiveness to understand how to do something on such a small scale, but so intricately - I think that's kind of amazing," she said.


尽管这些作品中详细标注了很多小提琴演奏法,但加西亚本人并不会演奏小提琴,他比较擅长钢琴。“这也是让我出乎意料的地方,”希拉里说。作曲家不仅擅长在这件乐器上构建复调体系,并对小提琴作品的写作技巧信手拈来。”“能够在小提琴这块小小的方寸之地,展现巨大的音域以及错综复杂的结构关系,真的非常不可思议。”



For the player, the partitas are technically as well as musically challenging. "To really find the music in them, you need to spend some time with them, and you also have to understand the Spanish rhythms, as well as his own personal sense of rhythm and freedom," Hilary said. "That was really a revelation to me." Sometimes García Abril wanted the opposite of what might be conventional. For example, "when he writes 'rubato,' he means to start fast and then broaden. When he writes 'free' he means to broaden. When he sings and demonstrates it, when he speaks about the music, if you are privy to that information I think you can see it reflected in everything that he does."


对于演奏者来说,乐曲既有技术上的,也有音乐上的困难。“想要演奏好,你必须花很多的时间研究乐谱,并熟悉西班牙节奏,以及作曲家的个人风格。”希拉里说,“对于我来说,这真的是一个全新的感受。”有时乐谱上的要求会与我们传统的理解大相径庭。比如,“当作曲家标记‘rubato’时,实际是要求演奏者先快后慢;当标记‘free’时,则要求拉的更慢(broaden,此处原译指宽广,若有更好译法欢迎指教)。如果你对于作曲家有所了解,就会发现他在吟唱旋律,在谈论音乐时所展现出来的一切特质,都在他的作品中一一得以呈现。



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For that reason, Hilary is releasing a number of YouTube videos in conjunction with the new recording, including interviews with García Abril and minimasterclasses about each piece. "You can see in the interview video that he speaks in grand terms," Hilary said. "He is a senior artist in his country who is revered as an authority on a lot of things. In Spain he is one of the great living composers and very well known." BELOW: García Abril and Hilary talk about Partita No. 2 "Immensity."


正因为如此,希拉里在视频网站中发布了很多视频,包含对作曲家的采访,对于每一首乐曲的讲解以及演奏。“你会发现,阿布里尔在采访中使用了很多很高深的词语,他在西班牙是一位备受尊敬的艺术家,很有名,说话很有权威性。”下面的视频,就是加西亚与希拉里在探讨组曲中的第二首:无限。



(视频链接:https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCI9pm8WplvpIN8uKpoxcXaQ)


Here is Hilary's masterclass on the same piece:"I just love these pieces," Hilary said. "All together, they create a new sound world for solo violin, with new expressive opportunities, without being a sound world that you can't feel your own feelings in. I feel like when something is in a new sound world you need a little time to get used to it, but with this music, once you listen to a couple of them, you are in it, and then you just continue."


希拉里在这首作品的讲解中是这么说的:“我真的很喜欢这些作品,”希拉里说,“它们为小提琴独奏艺术开创了一片新的田地,并依然包含着能够打动你自己的情绪。一直以来,新作品总是需要一段时间才能够被人们所接受。然而这些作品不同,你只要开始听一会儿,就会被吸引,从而欲罢不能。”



版权声明:本文摘自公众号“ 音乐文献编译组”,作者:周怡杉,仅供参考、交流、学习等非商业目的。转载的稿件版权归原作者和机构所有,如有侵权,请联系我们删除,谢谢合作!




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