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一位值得关注的女性大提琴家丨莎娜·罗尔斯顿专访(一)

莎娜·罗尔斯顿


Conversation with Shauna Rolston

对话大提琴家莎娜·罗尔斯顿

By Tim Janof


Having been named "Young Artist to Watch" by Musical America and the youngest recipient of the Pro Musicis International Award, celebrated cellist Shauna Rolston is considered to be one of the most compelling musicians of her generation. She has been praised for the ease and naturalness of her technique, her pure intonation, sheer fearlessness, and her ability to produce a huge tone and to play with great delicacy.


著名大提琴家莎娜·罗尔斯顿被美国音乐协会评为“值得关注的年轻艺术家”,同时她也是乐府国际音乐大奖最年轻的获得者,被认为是同辈中最引人注目的音乐家之一。


莎娜·罗尔斯顿



《埃尔加大提琴协奏曲》


According to Classic CD Magazine "her recording of Elgar's cello concerto is worthy to stand alongside Jacqueline du Pré's classic account. This could be the most remarkable performance of the last 20 years."


其技艺轻松自然、音调纯净、自由不羁,其演奏优美精妙、风格显著、颇受赞誉。古典唱片杂志称,“她所录制的《埃尔加大提琴协奏曲》堪与杰奎琳·杜·普雷的经典演绎相提并论。这可能是过去20年来最亮眼的表现。”



Following her formative studies at the renowned Banff Centre, Shauna earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in Art History from Yale University and a Master of Music degree from the Yale School of Music. At Yale, she studied with the distinguished cellist and pedagogue, Aldo Parisot; she also served as his teaching assistant.


在著名的班夫中心学成之后,莎娜获得了耶鲁大学的艺术史学士学位和耶鲁音乐学院的音乐硕士学位。在耶鲁,她师从著名的大提琴家兼教师阿尔多·帕里索,且担任他的助教。


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Since her New York City Town Hall debut at the age of 16, Shauna continues to perform regularly in major concert venues and festivals around the world. She has collaborated with conductors Krzysztof Penderecki, Mario Bernardi, Bramwell Tovey, William Eddins, Hans Graf, Andrew Davis, JukkaPekka Saraste, Marin Alsop, Pavel Kogan, Andreas Delfs, Keith Lockhart, Kenneth Jean, Uri Meyer, Peter Bay, Sam Wong, George Hansen, Andrey Boreyko, Alexander Rudin and Yoav Talmi, among others.


自16岁时在纽约市政厅首演以来,莎娜一直定期在世界各地的主要音乐会及音乐节中演出。她曾与指挥家克里斯托夫·彭德雷茨基、马里奥·贝尔纳迪、布拉姆韦尔·托维、威廉·爱丁斯、汉斯·格拉夫、安德鲁·戴维斯、朱卡-佩卡·萨拉斯特、马林·阿尔索普、帕维尔·科岗、安德列亚斯·德尔夫斯、基思·洛克哈特、肯尼斯·让、尤里·迈耶、彼得·贝、萨姆·王、乔治·汉森、安德烈·博雷克、亚历山大·鲁丁和约夫·塔尔米等人合作。



Gifted prodigy turned masterful innovator, Shauna is an enthusiastic advocate for and performer of the music of our time. She has given the world premiere of an astounding number of worksmany written for her. For example, her CD "This is the Colour of My Dreams" which won Best Classical CD at the 2002 West Coast Music Awards, is dedicated to concerti and concert pieces for cello and orchestra written for her by Heather Schmidt, Christos Hatzis, Chan Ka Nin, and Kelly-Marie Murphy.


天才的神童成长为大师级的创新者,莎娜是我们当代音乐的热情倡导者和演绎者。由她进行全球首演的作品数量惊人,其中许多是专为她而创作的。例如,她在2002年西海岸音乐奖上获得最佳古典音乐唱片的《这是我梦想的颜色》,就是由希瑟·施密特、克里斯特斯·哈茨、陈嘉年和凯莉-玛丽·墨菲专为她创作的大提琴与管弦乐作品。


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A prolific recording artist, her discography includes releases of the Elgar, SaintSaëns and Bliss concerti, and Fauré and Frank sonatas. Both CDs are included on a list of 13 "Cello Recordings to Please Discriminating Audiophiles" (Benjamin Ivry, the audiophile voice). Her latest CD "Shauna and Friends," features arrangements of popular favorites by Claude Kenneson for solo cello and an ensemble of 12 cellists, conducted by Keri-Lynn Wilson.


作为一名多产的艺术家,她已发行的唱片包括埃尔加、圣桑和布利斯协奏曲以及福尔雷和弗兰克奏鸣曲。两张光盘都被列入了13张“有品位音响发烧友喜爱的大提琴唱片”名单中(本杰明·埃夫里,音响发烧友之声)。她的最新专辑《莎娜和朋友们》由凯利·林恩·威尔逊指挥,是克劳德·肯纳森为大提琴独奏和12名大提琴手合奏而改编的,颇受欢迎的流行曲目。



As a chamber musician, Shauna has performed and recorded with many preeminent artists and ensembles including the Gallois Quintet, and pianist Menahem Pressler. Her most recent artistic partnership is with pianist and composer Heather Schmidt. This collaboration began with critically acclaimed duo recitals at the Winnipeg New Music Festival in 2002, and developed with performances as part of the Governor General of Canada's state delegation visit to Finland and Iceland and a tour of the Maritime Provinces through Debut Atlantic.


作为室内音乐家,莎娜与许多杰出的艺术家和合奏团一起表演和录音,包括加洛瓦五重奏和钢琴家梅纳姆·普莱斯勒。她最近的合作伙伴是钢琴家兼作曲家希瑟·施密特。合作始于2002年温尼伯新音乐节上广受好评的双人独奏会,在加拿大总督率领的国家代表团访问芬兰和冰岛,以及穿越大西洋处女航的海上省份巡回演出中得到深化。



Current and upcoming performances include recitals in Ottawa (National Arts Centre), Winnipeg, Vancouver, Victoria, Dallas, Shreveport and Boston (the Harvard Musical Association), as well as two benefit concerts in Grand Cayman and a tour of Quebec (Piano Plus).


当前和即将进行的演出包括在渥太华(国家艺术中心)、温尼伯、温哥华、维多利亚、达拉斯、什里夫波特和波士顿(哈佛音乐协会)的独奏会,以及在开曼群岛的两场义演音乐会和魁北克的巡演(配钢琴)。


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Shauna's artistic interests extend beyond solo and concerto performances. Her latest video "A Pairing of Swans" with prima ballerina Evelyn Hart (directed by Veronica Tennant) was premiered at the 2004 International Moving Pictures Festival and was recently nominated for a Gemeni award. Two of Shauna's previous videos "smokin fholes" with Squeezplay, and "Words Fail" with dancer and choreographer, Peggy Baker, are featured regularly on BRAVO.


莎娜的音乐兴趣不仅限于独奏和协奏曲表演。她与首席芭蕾舞女演员伊芙琳·哈特的最新影片《天鹅配》(由维罗妮卡·滕南特执导)在2004年国际电影节首次公演,最近获得了双子星奖提名。莎娜以前的两部影片:与Squeezplay(一个用钢琴,手风琴和打击乐进行演奏的三重奏组合——译注)合作的《F孔生烟》和与舞蹈演员兼编舞佩吉·贝克合作的《无言》,会定期在精彩电视台(BRAVO,美国一家无广告付费的有线电视台——译注)播出。



Future projects include several recordings, a profile interview for BIOGRAPHY, an indepth interview for the Internet Cello Society, and a fulllength film (RedStar films for BRAVO) "Synchronicity" featuring Shauna and Heather Schmidt. She is also featured in "The Great Cellists" by Margaret Campbell and the soon to be released "The Popular Guide to Women in Classical Music" by Anne Gray.


未来的工作包括几项录制,一段传记的简介采访,一段互联网大提琴协会的深度采访,以及一部由莎娜和希瑟·施密特主演的长片《同步》(红星制片厂为精彩电视台摄制)。她还在玛格丽特·坎贝尔的《伟大的大提琴家》和安妮·格雷即将发行的《流行指南——古典音乐中的女性》中担任主演。



In addition to her busy concert and recording career, Shauna is a passionate and devoted educator. Much in demand as a guest master class instructor, Shauna is also a Professor of Cello and CoHead of the String Department at the University of Toronto and a Visiting Artist for the Music and Sound Programs at The Banff Centre.Shauna Rolston is represented by Michael Dufresne President, Michael Gerard Management Group.


除了繁忙的音乐会和录制工作,莎娜还是一个充满激情和奉献精神的教育家。作为客座大师级讲师,她非常受欢迎。她还是多伦多大学的大提琴教授和弦乐系主任之一,也是班夫中心“乐与音项目”的客座艺术家。莎娜·罗尔斯顿的代理人为迈克尔·杰拉德管理集团主席,迈克尔·杜弗瑞。


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TJ: Your parents are professional musicians.

问:你的父母都是专业音乐家。



SR: Yes, my dad is a violinist and my mom is a pianist. This meant that I was completely immersed in music as a child and that music was an essential part of my family experience. I started playing trios with my parents when I was three or four years old.


莎娜·罗尔斯顿:是的,我爸爸是小提琴手,我妈妈是钢琴家。这意味着我小时候完全沉浸在音乐中,音乐是我家庭经历中不可或缺的一部分。我三四岁的时候就开始和父母一起进行三重奏。



Your first cello teacher was Claude Kenneson, author of several books, including A Cellist's Guide to the New Approach.


你的第一个大提琴老师是克劳德·肯尼森,他写过几本书,包括《大提琴家的新方法指南》。



He was my teacher from the age of two to twelve. He's a wonderful cellist, teacher, and author, as well as a prolific arranger. I have a CD coming out in the next few months which features all of his arrangements for solo cello and cello ensemble. I am really excited about this recording.


从两岁到十二岁他都是我的老师。他是一位出色的大提琴手、教师和作家,也是一位多产的编曲者。过几个月,我会出一张唱片,里面有他为大提琴独奏和合奏所作的所有编曲。我对这张唱片感到非常兴奋。



My parents played in a trio with him when we lived in Edmonton, Canada, so he was also a part of my family. Claude was the perfect teacher for me because he kept the learning process alive by giving me fun exercises and games that were both challenging and educational. He also liberated my curiosity by encouraging me to explore wherever my imagination led me instead of forcing me to stick to a rigid curriculum.


当我们住在加拿大埃德蒙顿的时候,我父母和他一起合作三重奏,所以他也是我们家庭的一员。克劳德对我来说是个完美的老师,他通过有趣的练习和既有挑战性又有教育意义的游戏,使学习过程生动活泼。他还鼓励我跟随想象力的引导,去探索其中的世界,解放了我的好奇心,而非强迫我盯着死板的课程。



My time with Claude was extremely important because he set the tone for the rest of my life. He taught me to ask questions and to seek my own answers. He also provided an environment in which I felt safe to try out different ways of doing things. He taught me to trust my own learning process.


我和克劳德在一起的时间非常重要,因为他为我此后的生涯定下了基调。他教我提出问题并寻找自己的答案。他为我提供了一个环境,在此我可以安全地尝试各种不同的处理方式。他教我要相信自我的学习过程


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My family moved to Banff when I was 12 and my parents started the Banff Center, which they eventually developed into an all-year program. There was no regular cello teacher in Banff, so I didn't have formal instruction from age 12 to 18 or 19. Instead, I played for various musicians who came through the residency program. This meant that my influences in my teen years had less to do with the cello, specifically.


我12岁的时候,家搬到了班夫,父母创办了班夫中心,最终发展成一个全年运转的项目。班夫没有正规的大提琴老师,所以我从12岁到18、9岁都没有接受正式的教学指导。取而代之的是,我会为驻留项目的各音乐家进行演奏。这意味着我青少年时期所受的影响与大提琴关系不大,没有专门的针对性。



Instead, I enjoyed more of a general musical education, and I played lots of chamber music and collaborated with several composers. In the summertime, cellists would come for several weeks and I was very fortunate to work with great cellists such as Pierre Fournier, William Pleeth, Janos Starker, Aldo Parisot, Tsuyoshi Tsutsumi, and Zara Nelsova. Because I didn't have a long term teacher, I felt free to experiment with various ideas from these great cellists.


相反,我喜欢更具普遍性的音乐教育,我演奏了很多室内乐,并与几位作曲家合作。夏天,大提琴手会来几个星期,我非常幸运地与伟大的大提琴手一起工作,如皮埃尔·富尼埃、威廉·普莱斯、亚诺什·斯塔克、阿尔多·帕里索、堤刚和扎拉·内尔索瓦。因为我没有长期的老师,所以我可以自由尝试这些伟大大提琴家的各种想法。



I worked with Janos Starker and Aldo Parisot on a regular basis in the summertime from when I was 11 or 12. I worked with Zara Nelsova quite a bit too. Zoltan Szekely had a residency in Banff, so the Hungarian Quartet came often, which meant that I also worked with Gabriel Magyar.


从11岁或12岁开始,夏天我就定期与亚诺什·斯塔克和阿尔多·帕里索一起工作。我也和扎拉·内尔索瓦一起工作过一段时间。佐尔丹·策克利在班夫有住处,所以匈牙利四重奏经常会来,这意味着我也和加布里埃尔·马扎尔一起工作过。



Magyar was very systematic in his approach to the fingerboard and he used fingerings that are typically used by violinists, like using lots of extended positions and using the fourth finger in the higher positions. He took me beyond traditional cello technique.


马扎尔对指板的处理非常系统,他使用小提琴手常使用的指法,比如使用许多伸展部位以及在较高位使用无名指。他带我超越了传统的大提琴技巧。



I remember thinking while Magyar was showing me how to use the fourth finger up high, "Why can't I use my fourth finger in thumb position? Who created that rule?" We tend to get stuck in Cello Land, where there are things that cellists aren't supposed to do.


我记得当马扎尔教我如何把第无名指高高抬起时,我在想:“为什么我不能把无名指放在拇指位置?谁定的这条规则?”我们常沉浸在“大提琴王国”(应为班夫中心以此为名的一个工作区——译注),做不循规蹈矩的事。



Instead, we should approach the cello with the notion that we can do anything, or at least try anything! Because of my non-traditional training, it was perfectly normal for me to experiment. I don't mean in a reckless way, where one ignores the score, but more in terms of doing whatever it takes to communicate through the instrument. There's another world of technique that goes beyond the traditional system that is so personal and gratifying.


是的,我们应该以这样的观念来面对大提琴:我们可以做任何事情,或者至少尝试任何事情!由于我的非传统训练,进行实验性的探索是很正常的事。我不是指不顾后果,脱离实际,而是指尽一切努力经由乐器进行交流。有一个超越传统技术体系的境界,它极其个性化且能从心达意。


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斯塔克



Would you say that Starker and Parisot have similar approaches to technique.

问:你认为斯塔克和帕里索在技术上有相似之处吗?


Absolutely. They both emphasize fluidity, timing, balance, resistance, speed of gesture, and breathing. They have very different temperaments, of course, but they're both very analytical. I've had very focused technical discussions with both of them and they are of a like mind in terms of how one should play the cello.


莎娜·罗尔斯顿:没错。他们都强调流动性、时机、平衡、阻抗、姿势、速度和呼吸。当然,他们有非常不同的气质,但他们都很善于分析。我和他们都就技术问题专门进行过探讨,他们在如何拉大提琴方面意见一致。



What is the Banff program about?

问:班夫计划是做什么的?


My dad started it as a summer festival in the 1960's. I believe it was 1979 when my parents developed it into a year-round program, called "Music and Sound," which is still its focus. It's hugely successful and musicians from all over the world come for weeks or months to work on specific projects. In addition to visiting artists, it has a fairly intimate group of fifty or sixty musicians, as well as artists from other disciplines. Just imagine the daily inspiration I had while growing up in such an environment!


莎娜·罗尔斯顿:在20世纪60年代,起初父亲把它作为一个夏季音乐节。我想是在1979年,我父母把它发展成一个全年运作的项目,叫做“乐与音”,这仍然是它的核心。计划非常成功,来自世界各地的音乐家会花几周或几个月的时间来完成特定的项目。除来访的艺术家之外,它还有一个相当密切的,由五六十名音乐家以及其他学科的艺术家组成的团体。想象一下在这样的环境中成长时,我每天都有什么样的灵感!



My childhood was pretty amazing. My dad likes to say that when I turned left, I had my Banff high school experience, where I enjoyed the idyllic Banff mountain life of skiing, hiking, and friends. When I turned right, my life was about the Arts and the Banff Center.


我的童年非常美好。我爸爸喜欢说,在我的生活中,左有班夫高中,在那里我享受了田园诗般的生活:朋友们、徒步旅行和班夫山滑雪;右有艺术和班夫中心。



Your bio mentions that you were considered a child prodigy.

问:你的传记提到你被认为是神童。


That term was applied to me early on, which opened a lot of doors. The media took notice of me and I did a number of television appearances. My parents were never pushy, however, and there was never any discussion about how to engineer my career. I played purely for the love of music and the love of performing. I never felt that I would be some sort of failure if I ended up doing something else.


莎娜·罗尔斯顿:很早就有人这么说我,这打开了许多扇门。媒体注意到了我,我在电视上出现过几次。然而,我的父母从不爱出风头,也从来没有讨论过如何设计我的职业生涯。我的演奏纯粹是出于热爱音乐和表演。我从来没有觉得,如果我最终做了别的事情,我会是某种失败。



I was very fortunate to have such a healthy upbringing. I don't care for the word, "prodigy," actually. As many now understand, the term doesn't always have a positive connotation, since prodigies are often carted around like circus acts and many miss out on their childhoods. That label takes its toll on those who carry it.


我很幸运有这样健康的成长环境。实际上,我不喜欢“神童”这个词。正如许多人现在所理解的,这个词并不总是有积极含义,因为神童经常会像在马戏团表演一样被带去巡展,许多人错过了他们的童年。那个标签会对当事人造成伤害。



Performing was a purely joyous experience for me until I was known as a prodigy. I remember my frustration as a young performer hearing at age 10, "Wow, she's great for 10. We can't wait until she's 15!" Then when I was 15, I'd hear, "Wow, she's great for 15. Just imagine what she'll do when she's 20!"


在我被称为神童之前,表演对我来说纯粹是一种快乐的体。记得我在10岁时,作为一名小演员在听到这些话后感受到的沮丧:“哇,她10岁就很棒了。我们等不及了,真想看到15岁的她!”然后当我15岁的时候,我会听到,“哇,她15岁就很棒了。想象一下她20岁时会达到什么程度!”



I remember giving an interview when I was 14 for a national newspaper in Canada, saying in frustration, "I know what I know now. This is who I am right now. This is what I feel. Never mind what's going to happen next week!" It was such a frustrating time because everybody was always comparing me to a future me.


记得14岁那年,在接受加拿大一家全国性报纸采访时,我沮丧地说,“我知道我现在知道些什么。这就是我现在的样子。这就是我的感受。管它下周会发生什么!”那是如此令人沮丧的一段时间,因为大家一直把我和未来的我做比较。



Then when the socalled prodigy reaches adulthood, people see him or her differently. Suddenly, he or she isn't as fascinating or as much of a curiosity. "If only she were 25 again." Then everybody shifts their attention to the next up and coming prodigy and the former prodigy has to fend for him or herself.


当所谓的神童成年后,人们对他们会有不同的看法。突然间,他们不再那么迷人或令人好奇了。“要是她能重回25岁就好了”然后每个人都把注意力转移到下一个即将到来的神童身上,而前神童只能自求多福了。



When someone is very young and is doing something with a certain level of discipline and achievement, and with feeling and power, it's hard to accept the child for what they are in the moment. It's too easy to project on the child the hope that he or she will be the next Zara Nelsova or Pablo Casals. Kids want to be appreciated for who they are, not who they might be someday.


当一个年龄很小的人,有一定程度的纪律性和成就,且循着自己的感情和能力去做一件事,那人们会很容易地去预想,他或她将成为下一个萨拉·内尔索瓦或巴保罗·卡萨尔斯,而非安心接受孩子现在的样子。孩子们希望被人欣赏的是他们是谁,而不是有一天他们会成为谁。




未完待续



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